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Overview of the GRAM cryptocurrency on the Telegram Open Network blockchain from Pavel Durov



Sergey Prilutsky, a well-known blockchain expert, head of the research department at MixBytes and the SmartZ project during the Telegram Eventing shared detailed information about the TON project of Pavel Durov.

The data was obtained after studying classified information about the current state of TON development and will be interesting not only to specialists, but also to a wide range of potential investors.

Public Information

Funding for the development of the TON project was collected during two rounds of closed ICOs. Thanks to this, it was possible to raise $ 1.7 billion of investments, the minimum size of the stake was $ 20 million, about 100 investors took part in the ICO, among whom was Roman Abramovich.

The entire volume of the internal cryptocurrency of the project will be released immediately and will amount to 5 billion GRAM coins. After the launch of the project, ICO tokens from investors will be exchanged for coins in a ratio of 1 to 1.

Technical features of the TON blockchain

In the TON network, consensus is ensured by special validator nodes that receive a commission for their services. Something similar is implemented in the Ripple protocol. The reliability of the transaction is confirmed by the BFT-algorithm (the task of the Byzantine generals).

Micropayments are not displayed immediately on the blockchain , only their hash is visible. To ensure the validity of microtransactions, each validator must have on the account some security deposit in GRAM coins, which is provided by the nominees.

The validator cannot conduct more transactions than he is able to provide with collateral coins. In case of an erroneous payment, the validator and the nominator transfer coins to the accounts of other validators from this amount to cover their expenses for ensuring the transaction.

Each network node is responsible for its own part of the blockchain, which is divided into small pieces – shards (shardes). With a significant increase in the load on the network, part of the shards can be transferred to neighboring network nodes.

TON developers called this idea “Infinite Sharding”. The similar structure of the blockchain makes it possible not only to easily share shards, but also to automatically repair damaged areas.

TON Ecosystem Research Information

Sergey Prilutsky conducted an in-depth study of the TON project, during which interesting features of the new project surfaced. Below we propose to get acquainted with detailed information about the structure and features of the Telegram Open Network (TON) blockchain platform.

The idea of Infinite Sharding

The main concept of the TON platform is the message. The user can send it from outside the blockchain to the address of any system account. Such a procedure causes the creation of a message to other network accounts. Moreover, the state of an individual account can be imagined in the form of its own blockchain (accountchain). It is inherently a repository of incoming and outgoing messages.

Many shardes accounts are merged into Shardchain, a blockchain maintained by a validator node. The internal composition of such a shard chain can change dynamically, depending on the load on a particular network node.

Many shardchains are united in a workchain, another blockchain structure, due to the same prefix in their address. In turn, all the workchains form one masterchain, which is the general blockchain for the TON network. Let us dwell in more detail on these structures.


The master chain is the main chain that sets the rules for all chains of lower-level blockchains. Its role is to monitor and manage the global state of the entire Telegram Open Network.

The peculiarity of the master chain is that it does not have branching and merging of individual parts, i.e. in this, it resembles a classic blockchain. Each block of the master chain contains hashes of the last shard blocks organized in a binary tree, and stores the status of system smart contracts , as well as their code. PoS control, data on validators, network participants – all this is stored in the master chain. However, accurate information on this subject could not be found, and the one that is is unreliable and not final.

Masterchain management is based on system smart contracts that contain such global parameters:

  • The total number and other characteristics of the coin GRAM.
  • List of validator nodes, parameters of their share, address of the contract by which a monthly selection of new validators takes place.
  • Parameters TVM (TON Virtual Machine), its version, minimum and maximum gas prices – similar to Ethereum .
  • Smart contracts of additional tokens and their status.

It is important that all changes to the global TON parameters are accepted by consensus of more than 2/3 of all validators according to the BFT algorithm.


Workchain is a conditional blockchain that combines the same type of chardchain. Its identifier is a prefix for the id number of shards, it is necessary for the exact routing of messages.

In TON, there is enough space for many workchains (2 ^ 32, which corresponds to approximately 4.3 billion workchains), and in each of them you can organize your own message logic. For example, one workshop can serve Ethereum contracts, and the other can implement anonymous UTXO (unspent coins), as is done in ZCash.


Shardchayn is the main working unit in the TON network. Shardchain is a separate chain of blocks that sends and receives messages from other shards, i.e. it is a blockchain serving its set of accounts.

Each validator contains a complete list of its shards and only part of the blocks from neighboring ones. The validator produces new blocks in its shardchyn, sending and receiving messages from other shards. At this level, it is already possible to separate and merge chains of shard chain blocks. Schematically, it looks like a DAG (directed acyclic graph), where each block has several parents, which are the last blocks of the joined shardchains.

Shard blocks

Each shard block must contain a certain required data set, the so-called indivisible part. It includes:

  • The hash of the previous block and, possibly, the hashes of the parents in the event of a merger of shardchaynov.
  • Validator signatures for already accepted blocks.
  • The number of the last known master block chain.
  • Hashes of the initial and final state of the shard for this block.
  • An outgoing message queue in the form of a list of messages sent to other shards.


An account chain is an entry-level TON blockchain. Each account identifier is a 256-bit key + workchain identifier. For example, the address of a smart contract would look like this:

1: 81525a3672b55678d4139b993b542c5c9735ac41b653d963a42855c9834b6921a4.

And the user account address is like this:

Ef + BVndfdQ45nUdlsfsmv68KBHGSgBJsfsv58dG2SE4oPMgs4.

The account itself receives and receives messages (naturally these are not messages from Telegram). They can contain GRAM tokens, be smart contract calls, represent any other data, etc.

All messages are processed only when they are delivered to the desired shard. In this case, they can freely move through intermediate shards. Messages can also come from outside the TON blockchain, i.e. be "messages from nowhere."


Any account is a smart contract, possibly even with an empty code. Each account pays a fee for data storage, i.e. its balance decreases over time.

The account contains information on the balance of the GRAM tokens, the contract code or its hash, the time spent in the network, starting with the appearance of the root cell, statistics on the use of the data warehouse (for example, by the time the storage was last paid), a formal description of the interface.

Low level storage, cells

All data is stored in the TON blockchain in structures called cells. This is the basic unit for measuring the size of all network elements: messages, contract code, a wide variety of data.

Each cell contains 1023 bits of information and up to 4 links to neighboring cells. There are 256 different types of cells that differ in the way they are implemented and in the number of links to other cells. All of them are combined in a tree with the number of links for each element from 0 to 4. Cells are used for unified storage and deterministic operation in the blockchain storage.

Internal TON Algorithms

We have already met with the structure of the TON blockchain and its main elements. Now it’s the turn of the principles of their work and their fundamental concepts.

Logical time

As we learned earlier, the data structure in TON is a DAG, as, in principle, in 90% of other cryptocurrencies, including bitcoin . To fix the fact of delivery of a message or event in the blockchain, a monotonous counter is used during operations with them, and each such message contains its own time.

Due to the lack of central time synchronization servers, the use of absolute time within the network can lead to various errors. That is why the message systems decided to stop at a logical time.


What is a message? This is absolutely any operation between shards. Any shard block must have an incoming message from an outgoing message from another existing and valid shard block. To confirm the truth of the message, only a few blocks from the sender’s chain are allowed to be stored; storage of its indivisible part is mandatory.

It is also forbidden to process an incoming message until proof of delivery of earlier outgoing messages from at least the next shard is received. This approach forces validators to prioritize sending messages first and then receiving them.

Instant Hypercube Routing

As it is now clear, each shard, in fact, is a queue of incoming and outgoing messages. To search for the desired account and the shortest path to it, an accelerated version of the "hypercube" algorithm is used.

This leads to the fact that if the destination has its own shard, the transaction is transferred to the desired account, and new messages generated by it are placed in the outgoing message queue. In the case when the addressee is someone else's shard, then, according to the deterministic rules of routing, the message is transferred to the incoming messages of the next shard.

The inclusion of a message queue in blocks is a new solution in blockchain technology. Thanks to this approach, the status of the message can be immediately tracked on the blockchain. Globally, the entire array of sent messages between shards is a complex multidimensional directed acyclic graph (DAG). However, at the moment there is no final clarity about the operation of the message delivery guarantees to the addressee in such a DAG.

Smart contracts

In TON, creating a smart contract or account is the same thing. In the case of sending GRAM tokens to a non-existent address, it is created as an empty contract with a balance other than 0.

As mentioned earlier, any account that stores something on the blockchain pays a fee for storage. Therefore, when creating a smart contract, you need to provide it with a balance in GRAM to pay for storage space, or even first ensure a balance, and then place the smart contract code.

There are also ready-made smart contract libraries in the master chain. Each contract has the following properties:

  • The contract may create a new contract.
  • You can place the hash from the smart contract code and only then demonstrate it.
  • The smart contract code can be changed, but this should be provided for in the code of the original smart contract.
  • You can not store the smart contract code in the blockchain, but then only incoming messages will be available to the account. Code and data will be stored outside the blockchain.
  • The code and state of the “dying” smart contract (the balance of which is close to 0) is replaced with a hash of its code. Using a hash, a smart contract can still be restored subject to a balance replenishment, otherwise the hash will also be deleted after a few months.

In general, we can conclude that the behavior and properties of accounts in TON are similar at the same time to Bitcoin and Ethereum.

TVM (TON Virtual Machine)

The TON virtual machine is a new development in the field of smart contract work. It is deterministic and stackable. Therefore, it is easily scalable and does an excellent job of packing data into cells. On TVM it is convenient to keep track of GRAM expenses for the execution of smart contracts and it is very simple to restore smart contracts.

The constraint model in TVM is built on gas, and elliptical cryptography is implemented on the ed25519 protected curve.

Smart Contract Language

TON uses the low-level and extremely deterministic language Fift, the prototype of which was the language FORTH (which is probably why they chose the name Fift). It is a concatenated, stackable language for microcontrollers. Unfortunately, for writing smart contracts with determinism and maximum cost effectiveness, only two options were invented: EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) and WASM (WebAssembly).

Fift is strongly typed; there are a dozen and a half types in it, including complex ones (Tuple, List, Odject).

The whole idea of this language is built around “words” -operators: there are many different words for manipulating the stack, functions, logic blocks, variables – all this is subject to the central concept of the “word” -operator.

For example, this is how the code for outputting two Fibonacci numbers of large 1000 looks like:

{1 0 rot {-rot over + swap rot 2dup> =} until drop}: fib-gtr

1000 fib-gtr


  • dop (xx x) , duplicates the value of the top of the stack. If the stack is empty, it throws an exception error.
  • drop (x) , deletes the value of the top of the stack.
  • swap (xyyx) , swaps the two values closest to the top of the stack.
  • rot (xyzyzx) , rotates the three values closest to the top of the stack.
  • -rot (xyzzxy), inverts the three values closest to the top of the stack in the opposite direction. Equivalent to rot rot.
  • over (xyxyx) , creates a copy of the second value on the stack and places it on top of the stack.
  • tuck (xyyxy) , equivalent to swap over.
  • nip (xyy) , removes the second value from the top of the stack. Equivalent to swap drop.
  • 2dup (xy-xyxy) , equivalent to over over.

It should be noted that many developers are shocked by this syntax and before studying the documentation on Fift, it is recommended to study one on FORTH.

For what reason did the developers choose Fift as the language for smart contracts? Perhaps because in this form it is great for formal verification and more error-resistant, requiring application developers to fully understand the sequence of execution of any operations.

TON General Impressions

In general, building the TON ecosystem makes a good impression. Among the advantages should be noted:

  • A new, cost-effective implementation of data storage. This indicates a serious approach to the problem of blockchain size.
  • A primitive messaging system similar to that used in GO.
  • Processing a message chain, a memory pool on the blockchain, almost all transaction information is taken from the blockchain, and not from external sources.
  • Workchain for hard forks or radical changes in consensus, cryptography, virtual machine for smart contracts. This allows you to theoretically tie Bitcoin, Ethereum, or EOS blockchains to TON as a new working chain.

Managing TON with smart contracts is a well-established method. For example, in Ethereum, EOS, Polkadot, etc.

From the point of view of the developer, the TON node is a few blockchains: master chain, work chain, shard chain.

Smart contract interfaces are stored next to smart contracts, which is very convenient for dApp, as provides the simplest interaction with them.

All blockchain resources are honestly paid, up to and including data warehouse rental. There are no discounts for large GRAM holders or validators.

The only thing I would like to change is the availability of a more understandable mechanism for implementing formal proof of message delivery. Especially considering the variety of network topology options.


The WhitePaper of the project gives the impression that the developers took the best working patterns from many modern projects, and did something different for each of them. Here there are parts that work like UTXO bitcoin (messages, accounts), there are like EVM (smart contracts, management), there are new individual developments (shards, routing), and there is an adaptation of old solutions to your project (language of smart contracts, cells storage).

In general, we can say that TON is causing a natural interest in a huge number of developers and users. Unfortunately, so far, apart from TVM, examples of smart contract code and a test node, which with high probability are at least partially an emulation, there is nothing more. A full launch of TON can only wait impatiently.

Publication date 08/23/2019
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TRON (TRX) cryptocurrency review – forecasts and prospects, current rate



5/5 (1 vote)

Cryptocurrency TRON (TRX) is a decentralized protocol based on blockchain technology designed to create a global entertainment network with free content.

In simple terms, TRON is a service similar to all well-known social networks and platforms where users have the opportunity to publish, view and use any available content for entertainment, for example, online games.

The TRON project is currently developing the idea of joint consumption, which is that on a single global platform, users will be able to share entertainment content.

Official TRON cryptocurrency website:

Analysts call this platform the broadcast of the modern entertainment industry. In general, the functioning of this system is as follows:

  1. The author or copyright holder publishes the result of his intellectual work on the official website. You can download anything from literary novels to an author’s song or art on a specific topic. Next, the participant uploads information about how his creation can be used (as an accompaniment to another work or as an independent product). Nearby, he indicates the price of his work.
  2. Another user who is interested in this work acquires it for the local currency Tron (TRX). However, users should remember that it is impossible to purchase this or that product on this resource using fiat money (dollar, euro, rubles, etc.). The system has its own cryptocurrency , which must be purchased at exchangers or exchanges in order to complete a transaction.
  3. As soon as the interested user has acquired the result of intellectual work, the amount indicated by him is transferred to the author’s account. The author can use the tokens at his discretion – purchase a work from another author, simply save money in his account, or exchange it for another cryptocurrency or fiat funds.

About what TRX is, initially interested in all users who are just starting their activities on the site. This resource uses several types of tokens for different purposes:

  • Tron (TRX) . This is the main currency of the system. For this currency you can buy or sell the results of your intellectual work. If necessary, the owner of a certain amount in this currency can exchange it for fiat money or other cryptocurrency.
  • Tron Power It is impossible to purchase or exchange other money for a given currency. The only way to get them is to secure the TRX currency on the site platform. In this case, they are converted to TR. The presence of such tokens gives advantages to their owner. For example, the holder of a TR has the right to vote for one or another change in the system, or to oppose them.
  • TRON 20 . Coins owned by developers. With the help of them, they create new full-fledged blockchains with new tokens.

The TRON cryptocurrency issue is limited, 100 billion coins have been issued at present. However, it is worth considering another point – starting in 2018, tokens begin to be burned (they are meant to be forwarded to an address known only to developers). The last major burn was in June last year, but how often such procedures will be carried out is currently unknown.

project team

The team of this project has on its side professionals working in various fields. The founder of the platform and the creator of TRX Coin is Justin Sun , who also created a social network with an audience of 10 million people. In 2017, Forbes magazine included Justin on his list as one of the most successful entrepreneurs, who was not yet 30 years old.

The technical director of the project is Lucien Chen , who has extensive experience in working for large Internet companies. He is perfectly versed in blockchains and the principles of functioning of cryptocurrencies.

Deus Yu , responsible for quality control, has been working in the computer games industry for a long time. According to Justin Sun, the experience of Deus will come in handy a little later, when the platform gains even greater popularity.

Charles Zhang , an adviser who is well versed in a business not related to cryptocurrencies and blockchains. He has repeatedly lectured on the basics of entrepreneurship, with which he was invited to many universities. Charles made a huge contribution to the promotion of the platform at the initial stage.

Blockchain Browser

Block Explorer is a search tool that allows you to view the addresses of wallets involved in the system, blocks, as well as data of transactions completed or committed. It can be compared with standard browsers, with the help of which an ordinary user searches for the information he needs on the Internet.

For each cryptocurrency, a personal Block Explorer is created that shows the network status for a given period of time. For the Tron cryptocurrency, such a Block Explorer is called TRONSCAN , where users can get all the information they need ( ).

How to mine Tron?

The developers of the platform did not provide for mining the Tron cryptocurrency , since they had already created all the necessary coins. In addition, the creators talked about the scheme according to which their cryptocurrency will work:

  1. 40% of the total number of coins will go on sale to enable the project to develop further.
  2. 15% of the remaining amount is allocated for acquisition by investors. Investors are players who, after the main sale of coins, will be ready to purchase tokens further.
  3. The remaining funds are “frozen” and remain in the accounts of the company owners.

Justin Sun explained that perhaps mining will be provided in the future when the company gains the necessary popularity.

TRX Token Wallets

The user can choose one of two options for storing Tron coins (TRX):

  • Storage of tokens on the exchange;
  • Creating your own crypto wallet.

With proper use, wallets provide a higher level of security. All types of wallets for Tron (TRX) are described in detail in this review .

Buying and selling TRX coins

You can buy a Tron on popular crypto exchanges , we recommend that you use the first 15 exchanges, and do not forget to install additional account protection. On the selected exchange, you must go through the registration procedure, after which you will be given a personal wallet, as well as its address.

The most popular and safe exchangers where you can buy and sell Tron:

The exchange rate of the Tron cryptocurrency against the ruble as of October 28, 2019 is 1.29 rubles per 1 coin. For a detailed analysis of the course and chart of coins, we recommend that you look at the Coinmarketcap website.

Development Perspectives and Company Roadmap

A distinctive feature of the project is its roadmap, which is scheduled until 2027. It is divided into several stages:

  1. Exodus It lasts from 2017 to 2018 and is considered officially completed. During this period, information about the project was actively disseminated, as well as developers were engaged in improving tools for using the site.
  2. Odyssey . Accounted for 2019-2020. During this time, developers will pay special attention to the economic development of the platform.
  3. Great Voyage . Captures July 2020 and ends in July 2021. Implementation of a personal ICO system, and third-party developers will have the opportunity to launch their own ICOs.
  4. Apollo It lasts from March 2021 to March 2023. Creating a decentralized exchange platform.
  5. Star Trek . It begins in April 2023 and ends in September 2025. Creation of a decentralized platform for the development of any computer games.
  6. Eternity . It starts in September 2025 and ends in September 2027. Platform users will have the opportunity to create their own playgrounds.

The developers mentioned that if these plans are implemented, a new roadmap will be created in the future, which will begin in 2028.

When analyzing the active nodes of the Tron cryptocurrency, you can notice the scale of the development of the project, where the majority of servers are located in the USA, China and Germany.

The forecast for Tron cryptocurrency from leading analysts suggests that, taking into account the current features of the crypto asset, in the future the project can absorb the entertainment market. And this means that in 2020 the value of one coin is able to stand on one level with the dollar.

Main competitors Tron

The project has two main competitors – Qtum and Ethereum . Each competing company has its own advantages, for example, the first has a more advanced platform in terms of technology, and the second wins due to smart contracts and fame.

Analysts are confident that the Tron platform will still have to fight for its users, since the developers are aimed at a specific audience. However, the Throne does not have special advantages that would distinguish the project from its competitors, which could become a serious problem in the future.


Tronix cryptocurrency has good prospects for further development, since the project itself is one of the most ambitious among others. However, at present it is not in demand. Investing in such a project will bring quite large risks, however, long-term investments can bring the investor good profit.

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The largest exchange Binance has the opportunity to deposit / withdraw deposits in rubles



5/5 (1 vote)

The Binance cryptocurrency exchange this Wednesday activated the possibility of making deposits in Russian rubles.

According to the instructions provided on the website, deposit / withdrawal of funds is carried out through the AdvCash payment system , including using bank cards. The commission for the deposit in this case is 3%, for the withdrawal – 2.5% plus 50 rubles.

To deposit / withdraw assets in rubles, you need to go to the “Buy cryptocurrencies” tab in the upper control panel or select the “RUB” currency in the user's wallet, then indicate the desired direction of payment and other necessary data.

Trading pairs for exchanging the ruble for cryptocurrencies on the Binance platform have not yet been presented.

Earlier today, CoinDesk published excerpts from a conversation with Binance CEO Changpen Zhao during his visit to Moscow last week.

“We are always looking for partners in any community, especially in Russia. Russia is a key market for us, it is one of the most active markets in the global blockchain space, ” he said then.

Zhao also confirmed that Russia is included in the Venus project, in which Binance intends to launch several regional stablecoins.

“We are working with potential issuers of stablecoin tied to fiat currency. We do this in all jurisdictions, in Russia in particular, we are looking for partners, ” he added.

Last week, Binance listed its first cryptocurrency pairs on its main platform, starting with Nigerian naira. The exchange also supports fiat trading at selected sites in Uganda, Singapore, the United States and Jersey.

Publication date 10/30/2019
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Technical analysis: the cryptocurrency market is ready for a new growth wave



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RoboForex lead analyst Dmitry Gurkovsky talks about further possible scenarios of the price movement of bitcoin and several popular altcoins .

Buyers managed to show a good bounce up. At the moment, assets such as Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash look very interesting in the context of continued growth. Moreover, if the BCH / USD chart shows the formation of a reversal pattern of the inverted “Head and Shoulders” in favor of growth, then BTC is just getting ready to leave the channel and continue a confident upward movement.

Unfortunately, the assets of Ethereum, Litecoin and EOS are still under pressure. There are several signals from daily charts in favor of moving down. However, if the bulls manage to break through the next resistance levels, then these assets will be ready to move to the phase of sustainable growth.

In general, the cryptocurrency market looks ready for the start of a new wave of recovery. The bulls can only hold the current levels and rise a little higher to deprive the bears of all chances to continue the downward correction.

Bitcoin (BTC)

Quotes showed an aggressive rebound from the support level. However, the price tested resistance in the form of a downtrend near the $ 9800 area. To continue the rise by the buyer, it is important to “push” prices even higher.

A good signal in favor of a likely continuation of growth is the breakdown of a downward trend line on the RSI indicator. In most cases, a return to the broken line occurs, after which we should expect continued growth. As the main trading idea, you can take a slight correction to the level of $ 7700, after which you can talk about a rebound and upward movement.

Cancellation of this option will be a fall in the quotes of the digital asset below the level of $ 6875, which will indicate a breakdown of the lower boundary of the channel and continued decline.

On the 4-hour chart, cryptocurrency quotes were able to leave the limits of the short-term downward channel. Such a signal is the first sign of a potential reversal of the current downward correction. However, confirmation of the completion of the fall will be a strong growth with consolidation above the level of $ 10,995, which will indicate a way out of the downward channel. In this case, the target of the movement will be the area of $ 12,405.

The values of the RSI indicator again pushed off the resistance level, so we should expect a decrease and a test of the broken channel boundary. After this movement, we can talk about the beginning of growth towards the goal at the level of $ 10,995.

Ethereum (ETH)

Ethereum buyers also managed to keep quotes in the support area, which is located at $ 147. At the moment, the price has once again returned to the area between the moving averages, which may provoke an attempt to further decline.

In favor of this option is a rebound from the downward resistance line on the RSI indicator. As the main idea, we should expect a rebound from the lower border of the rising channel and the continuation of the fall to the first target at $ 147. Its breakdown will open the way for the movement of quotations to the level of $ 100. Cancellation of the negative option will be a breakdown of the Moving Averages and the consolidation of ETH / USD above the level of $ 239. In this case, we can talk about continuing the rise to the goal at the level of $ 280.

On a 4-hour chart, quotes are clamped in a downward channel. The values of the RSI indicator are testing the resistance line again, so we can expect a rebound and fall in the quotes of the digital asset to the level of $ 150.

In favor of this option, a test of the upper boundary of the downward channel will also come forward. Cancellation of the proposed forecast will be a breakdown of the resistance level and consolidation above $ 202, which will indicate the exit of quotes beyond the rising channel. In this case, the target of the rise will be the level of $ 239.


Forecasts of financial markets are the private opinion of their authors. Current analysis is not a guide to trade. RoboForex is not responsible for the results of work that may arise when using trading recommendations from the submitted reviews.

Publication date 10/30/2019
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Name Price24H (%)
Bitcoin (BTC)
Ethereum (ETH)
Bitcoin Cash (BCH)
Stellar (XLM)
Litecoin (LTC)
Cardano (ADA)
Tether (USDT)
Monero (XMR)


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